Garment production is an organized activity that involves sequential processes such as laying, marking, cutting, sewing, testing, finishing, pressing, and packaging.
The production of ready-to-wear clothes or garments involves many processing stages, starting from the idea or concept of design and ending with a finished product. The apparel manufacturing process includes product design, fabric selection, and inspection, pattern making, sorting, marking, distribution, cutting, grouping, sewing, pressing or folding, finishing and detailing, dyeing and washing, quality control, etc.
Garment Production phases
Find the fabrics for garment manufacturing
Apparel factories purchase fabrics from foreign textile manufacturers in large vines with cardboard or plastic tubes or in piles or bags. Garment factories often have a dedicated warehouse or area that stores fabrics between arrival and production.
Garment Manufacturing- Relax on the fabric
“Relax” refers to the process by which the material can relax and contract before being manufactured. This step is necessary because the material is under constant tension during the various stages of the textile manufacturing process, including weaving, dyeing, and other finishing processes. The relaxation process can shrink the fabrics to minimize further shrinkage during use by the client.
Distribution, shape layout, and cut
After the fabric has softened, it is transferred to the spreading and cutting area of the garment manufacturing plant. The material is first to cut into equal layers and then stretched by hand or by a computer system in preparation for the cutting process. The fabric is spread over:
1 Allow operators to identify material defects.
2 Check for tension and sagging of the fabric during cutting.
3 Make sure all the layers are lined up precisely on top of each other.
The number of layers in each layer depends on the type of fabric, the method of spreading, the cutting equipment, and the size of the garment order.
The shapes of the clothes — or patterns — are then placed on top of the shedding, either manually or programmed into an automated cutting system. Finally, the fabric is cut to the apparel shapes using manual cutting equipment or a computer-controlled cutting system.
Laying in apparel manufacturing
The laying of the paper swap will help plan the placement of the swatches in advance.
Put the large pieces first, then insert them into the smaller ones
It is very economical to lay and cut the pattern. Even a tiny amount of material saved in one change can save a lot of money because hundreds of layers of fabric are laid and cut at the same time.
When laying, the length of the garment should be parallel to the edge of the material. Make sure the motif is placed in the correct grain. Fabrics drape and fall better on the longitudinal grain and also last longer.
The edge of the crease should have parts that need to be placed on the right crease.
The marking planner builds full-size models and places them cost-effectively on marking paper.
This is a specially printed paper with symbols that the numbering planner can use to control components based on specified grain lines.
The markings made on paper are attached to the fabric with pens, staples, or on adhesive paper that is heat-sealed to the top layer of the material.
The details of the spreads are in the marker planning.
Cutting in Garment Manufacturing
This is the main operation of the cutting room as they spread and cut the garments. Of all the work in the cutting room, this is the most important, as it is done shortly after the material is cut.
Embroidery and screen printing
Embroidery and screen printing are two processes unless the customer is directly involved. Therefore, these processes are usually outsourced to external institutions. Embroidery is done with automated equipment, with many machines often embroidering the same design onto several clothing items at the same time. Each production line can have 10 to 20 embroidery stations. Customers can request embroidery to add logos or other embellishments to the garments.
In screen printing, graphic graphics are applied to fabrics using textile presses and dryers. In screen printing, a rubber blade is brushed over a porous screen, and the ink is transferred to the material through a stencil. The silk-filtered cloth pieces are then dried to set the ink. This process can have a different degree of automation or can be primarily completed in manually operated stations. As with embroidery, screen printing is entirely up to the customer, and they may be asked to put logos or other graphics on clothing or print information about the brand and size instead of putting the labels on.
The sewing or sewing after the cut pieces are grouped by size, color, and quantity determined by the sewing room.
The garments are sewn on the assembly line, and the garment is completed down the sewing line. Sewing machine operators receive a package of cut fabric and repeatedly seal the same part of the garment, passing the finished piece on to the next operator. Quality assurance is done at the end of the sewing line to ensure that the garment is assembled correctly and that there are no manufacturing defects. If necessary, the garment can be reworked or repaired at the sewing stations provided for this purpose. This work process gradually transforms pieces of fabric into designer clothes.
The essential process in making garments is connecting components.
- Sewing is done according to the buyer’s instructions.
- High-performance single-needle or computer-controlled sewing machines complete the sewing process. Fusion machines are used to fuse collar components, buttons, and buttonholes, sewing machines for sewing buttons and buttonholes.
Spot cleaning and washing
In addition to identifying apparel manufacturing defects, quality assurance staff look for cosmetic flaws, stains, or other spots on the garment that may appear during the cutting and sewing process. The stains are often marked with a sticker and taken to a stain removal area where the garment is cleaned with steam, hot water, or chemical stain removal.
Fusing and Pressing
Fusing and pressing are two processes that have the most significant impact on the appearance of a garment. The amalgamation creates the foundation, and the pressure gives the garment the ultimate seal of quality.
After a garment has been completely sewn and assembled, it is transferred to the hanger part of the system for final pressing. Each ironing station consists of an iron and ironing platform. The sections are similar to residential models but are supplied with steam from an on-site boiler. The workers control the steam with the foot pedals, and the steam is sent directly to the iron through the overhead lines. In most facilities, ironing platforms are equipped with a ventilation system that draws steam through the ironing board and releases it outside the factory.
The essential components of pressing are:
Steam and heat are needed to relax the fabric and make it legible enough to be manipulated.
Pressure: When the cloth is spread with steam, it is subjected to the pressure exerted by the fibers in their new positions.
Drying: After applying steam and pressure, the component or garment must be dried and cooled to allow the sheet to return to its normal state. This is done by a vacuum effect that removes too much water from the fabric and cools it simultaneously. Some prints use hot air or infrared heating for vacuum drying instead.
Packing and shipping
The final steps in making a retail product are folded, labeled, medium-sized, and packaged to customer specifications. Apparels can also be placed in protective plastic bags by hand or using an automated system to ensure the material remains clean and crushed during shipment. Eventually, the garments are placed in cardboard boxes and finally delivered to customer distribution centers for sale in retail stores.